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The Indian reservation system established tracts of land dubbed reservations for indigenous Americans come live on together white inhabitants took over their land. The main goals of Indian bookings were to lug Native american under U.S. Government control, minimize conflict in between Indians and settlers and encourage aboriginal Americans to take it on the means of the white man. However many aboriginal Americans were required onto appointments with catastrophic results and devastating, long-lasting effects.

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Treaty of Hopewell

In 1785, the contract of Hopewell was signed in Georgia—the biggest state in ~ the time—placing the aboriginal Cherokees under the security of a young United says and setup boundaries for their land.


But that wasn’t long before European settlers intruded top top Cherokee land. The Cherokees cried foul and revolted against the white settlements. Come reestablish peace between the Cherokees and the settlers, the treaty of Holston to be signed in 1791 in i m sorry the Cherokees i agree to offer up all land external of their established borders.

Not just did the federal federal government want indigenous Americans to offer up their land, they likewise encouraged them to come to be farmers and also Christians. In the at an early stage 19th century, inhabitants moved right into southern Cherokee territory en masse and also wanted their federal government representatives to insurance claim the land.


The United says acted to eliminate all Indian nations from the southeast. Georgia agreed come cede she western land to the federal government in return for Indian floor title.

Andrew Jackson

After the Louisiana Purchase, thomas Jefferson hoped to relocate eastern Indian tribes past the Mississippi River—but many Indians garbage his idea. As soon as Georgia organized lotteries to allocate seized Indian land, the battle-weary Creeks who’d sought sanctuary in eastern Alabama fought for their independence versus the militia of Andrew Jackson, which contained so-called “friendly Indians.”


After experiencing a terrible defeat at what came to be known together the fight of Horseshoe Bend, the Creeks yielded more than 20 million acre of land come the federal government.

Over the next several years, the government passed numerous acts to diminish Indian autonomy, in spite of the Cherokee forming a brand-new constitution-based government of their own. And also in December 1828, Georgia ordered the seizure of the staying Cherokee floor in your state.

Indian Removal act

On may 28, 1830, the Indian removal Act to be signed by chairman Jackson. The Act permitted the government to divide land west of the Mississippi to provide to Indian people in exchange because that the floor they’d lost. The government would pick up the expense of relocating the Indians and helping lock resettle.

The Indian removed Act to be controversial, yet Jackson argued it was the finest option since settlers had rendered Indian lands incompatible v sustaining their way of life.


Trail that Tears

Over the next few years, the Choctaw, Chicasaw and Creeks were required to relocate westward ~ above foot, regularly in chains and also with small or no food and supplies. Also some indians in the phibìc were required to relocate.

In 1838, president Martin van Buren sent out federal troops come march the remaining southern Cherokee holdouts 1,200 miles to Indian are in the Plains. Disease and famine were rampant, and also thousands passed away along the way, giving the tortuous trip the nickname “Trail of Tears.”


A team of  Seminoles, however, refused to leave and hunkered down in Florida. They battled federal troops for almost a decade before their leader to be killed and they finally surrendered.

The Indian Appropriations action

As white settlers continued westward and needed much more land, Indian territory shrank—but there was no an ext land because that the government to relocate them to.

In 1851, conference passed the Indian Appropriations act which produced the Indian reservation device and listed funds to move Indian people onto farming reservations and hopefully keep them under control. Indians were not enabled to leave the appointments without permission.


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"The Blackfoot medication Lodge Encampment of the Summer the 1899. A many notable gathering, and also one which never ever will be experienced again. Currently their ceremonies room discouraged through those in power and the primitive life is breaking up. The snapshot shows however a glimpse of the good encampment the a great many lodges."

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"A Blackfoot photo on the prairies the Montana. In the early on days and also closely complying with the salvation of the horse, numerous of the northern plains tribes carried their camp tools on the Travaux. This type of transportation had practically disappeared through the start of 1900."

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"The Canoe is to the coast Indian what the pony is come the civilization of the plains. In these picturesque canoes, constructed from the trunk of the great cedars, they take trip the whole length that the coastline from the mouth of the Columbia to Yakutat Bay, Alaska."

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"Navajo Indians emerging from the shadows the the high walls of Canyon de Chelly, Arizona typifying the shift from barbarism to civilization."

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"The heal ceremonies the the Navajo civilization are locally dubbed sings, or in other words, a physician or monk attempts come cure a disease by singing quite than through medicine. The healing ceremonies vary in length from a fraction of a day come the two good ceremonies of nine days and also nights. These elaborateceremonies which have actually been so fully described by Washington Mathews are referred to as by him the night chant and the mountain chant."

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"A good form of the younger Navajos."

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"The Navajo blanket is the most valuable product made by our Indians. Their blankets are now as that old, woven top top the basic primitive loom, and during the bleak months of Winter the looms are put in the Hogans or homes, yet in the Summer they location them outside in the the shade of a tree or under and also improvised sanctuary of branches."

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A Sioux man.

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"Three Sioux hill sheep hunters in the poor Lands of south Dakota."

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"A statuesque, it s as beautiful as picture Sioux Chief and also his favorite pony in ~ a water hold in the tape lands that the Dakotas."

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"Red Cloud is perhaps as well known in Indian lungemine.com, and also especially in Sioux Indian lungemine.com, together was George Washington in the thirteen colonies. In ~ the current time he is blind, and also feeble, and has yet a few years prior to him; his mind though is yet keen despite the 91 yrs., that enjoys recalling details that the prouder work of his youth."

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An Apache man.

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"An Apache picture. One must recognize the desert come <...> appreciate the vision of the cool, life-giving swimming pool or murmuring stream."

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"Showing the usual baby transport of the Apache people."

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"An Apache maiden. The path in i m sorry the hair is wrapped through beaded buckskin is the custom followed by the unmarried Apache girl. After marital relationship the hair drops loosely under the back."

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"A fine type of the Hopi men. These civilization are ideal known by their striking ceremony 'The line Dance.' "

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"A Hopi snake Priest."

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"The Hopi villages are developed on a little high straight-walled mesa whereby water need to be brought up native springs on reduced levels. This reflects two ladies at their early morning task."

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Hopi women, with their above hairstyles, looking the end atop your homes.The hairstyle was developed with the aid of wooden discs i beg your pardon the hair to be fashioned around. The style is claimed to be job-related by unmarried Hopi women, specifically throughout celebrations that the winter solstice.

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