Does the value of ns (negative or positive) suggest whether the photo is online upright or actual inverted? Or am I simply to know concave lens is diverging and also produces digital upright and vice versa? thank you

UV - Upright Virtual

IR - reverse Real

For lenses, a virtual photo is top top the same side together the object. Because that mirrors, a virtual image is opposite the object.

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For lenses, a real picture is top top the opposite side of the object. Because that mirrors, same side. You could also draw out the beam diagrams, however it bring away time and also is error-prone.

Not fairly sure what i is supposed to represent. Also do you typical concave mirrors? or Converging lens?

A general rule of thumb is because that a converging lens, if the thing is top top the exact same side as the incoming irradiate source, the image will it is in inverted, real and on the other side of the lens whereas for diverging, the image will it is in on the very same side together the object and virtual.

For calculating orientation it's probably much better to usage m=-di/do whereby di is the image distance and also do is the object distance relative to the mirror/lens. A + answer way it's upright and also - way it's inverted through respect come the object.

If f is +, the mirror is converging; - the mirror is diverging

If i is +, the image is real; - the photo is virtual

Diverging winter will always produce digital upright images

Converging and also o f, real inverted image

Convex mirror is divergent, concave lens is divergent

Concave winter is convergent, convex lens is convergent

Basically 'i' will certainly be confident if the is wherein the light beam is actually going. For example, a lens refracts light so the irradiate rays happen through. So, a confident 'i' is when the image is top top the opposite next of the light source.

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In a mirror, light rays space reflected. Therefore a confident 'i' is once the image is on the very same side together the irradiate source. Hope that renders sense!

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