What are Alkanes?

Alkanes space organic compounds the consist of single-bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms. The formula because that Alkanes is CnH2n+2, subdivided into three teams – chain alkanes, cycloalkanes, and the branched alkanes.

You are watching: The general formula for the alkane series is

Table that contents

Recommended Videos


*

Alkane together saturated hydrocarbons

Alkanes space a collection of compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms with single covalent bonds. This are well-known as saturated hydrocarbons. This team of compounds is composed of carbon and hydrogen atom with solitary covalent bonds. Additionally comprises a homologous series having a molecular formula of CnH2n+2.Alkanes are the simplest family members of hydrocarbons. Lock contain just carbon and hydrogen. Every carbon atom develops four bonds and also each hydrogen atom develops one bond. Chemists usage line-angle formulas because they room easier and faster to draw than condensed structural formulas. Structure formulas because that alkanes deserve to be created in yet an additional condensed form.

The an easy alkane methane includes one carbon atom and also CH4 together its molecule formula. As this compound have just single covalent bond only, therefore, its structural formula is

*

In a lengthy chain alkane molecule, additional carbon atoms room attached come each various other with the assist of a single covalent bond. Each atom is attached come the enough hydrogen atom to develop a full of four single covalent bonds. This long-chain structure is known as octane. One eight-carbon alkane has actually a molecular formula – C 8H 18 and also structural formula-

*

List that Alkanes and its structures

The perform of part Alkanes with the molecular formula and also structures are provided below.​


List of Alkanes Molecular Formula Structure
Methane(CH4)

Ethane(C2H6)

*
Propane(C3H8)

*
Butane(C4H10)

*
Pentane(C5H12)
*
Hexane(C6H14)
*
Heptane(C7H16)
*
Octane(C8H18)
*
Nonane(C9H20)
*
Decane(C10H22)
*

Physical properties of Alkanes

1. The Solubility the Alkanes

Due to very small difference the electronegativity in between carbon and also hydrogen and covalent nature the C-C link or C-H bond, alkanes are normally non-polar molecules.As we generally observe, polar molecules room soluble in polar solvents vice versa, non-polar molecules room soluble in non-polar solvents. Hence, alkanes room hydrophobic in nature the is, alkanes are insoluble in water.

2. The Boiling point of Alkanes

As the intermolecular van Der Waals pressures increase through the rise of the molecular dimension or the surface ar area that the molecule us observe:The boiling point of alkanes rises with enhancing molecular weight,The straight-chain alkanes space observed to have actually a greater boiling point in compare to your structural isomers.

3. The Melting suggest of Alkanes

The melting point of alkanes follow the same trend as their boiling allude that is, it rises with boost in molecule weight.This is attributed come the truth that greater alkanes room solids and it’s difficult to get over intermolecular pressures of attraction in between them.It is typically observed the even-numbered alkanes have a greater trend in melting suggest in comparison come odd-numbered alkanes together the even-numbered alkanes load well in the heavy phase, creating a well-organized structure which is challenging to break.

Also, review in Detail: physics & chemistry Properties the Alkanes

Alkanes Formula and also its Condensed Structures

Structural formulas for alkanes can be composed in condensed form. Because that example, the structure formula that pentane consists of three CH2 methylene groups in the center of the chain. We can team them together and write the structural formula. The first five alkanes formulas with an unbranched chain space tabulated below.


Name

Molecular formula of alkane

Condensed structure formula that alkane

methane

CH4

CH4

ethane

C2H6

CH3CH3

propane

C3H8

CH3CH2CH3

butane

C4H10

CH3(CH2)2CH3

pentane

C5H12

CH3(CH2)3CH3


An abbreviated way to draw structural recipe in which every vertex and line terminus to represent a carbon atom and also each heat represents a bond.

Alkane Formula Chemistry

Formulas of essential compounds existing information at several levels of sophistication. Molecule formulas, such together that that octane give the number of each kind of atom in a molecule of a compound. The molecular formula that C8H18 may apply to numerous alkanes, each among which has unique chemical, physical and toxicological properties. These different compounds are designated by structural formulas mirroring the bespeak in i beg your pardon the atom in a molecule room arranged. Compound that have the exact same molecular, however different structural formulas are referred to as structural isomers.

Most necessary compounds can be derived from alkanes. In addition, many important parts of organic molecules contain one or an ext alkane groups, minus a hydrogen atom, bonded as substituents onto the straightforward organic molecule. As a repercussion of this factors, the names of plenty of organic link are based upon alkanes.

Branched Chain Alkane Formula

As with other organic compounds, the carbon atom in alkanes may kind straight chains, branched chains, or rings. These 3 kinds the alkanes are straight chain alkanes, branched chain alkanes and also cycloalkanes. The general molecular formula the alkane for straight and branched-chain alkanes is CnH2n+2 and that of cyclic alkanes is CnH2n.

*

For example in the diagram, the 4 hydrocarbon molecule contain 8 carbon atom each. In one of the molecules, every the carbon atoms are in a right chain and in 2 they room in branched chains, whereas in a fourth, 6 that the carbon atoms space in a ring.

Alkyl Groups

When a substituent favor halogen bonds to an alkane molecule, one carbon-hydrogen link of the molecule it s okay converted come a carbon-substituent bond. It have the right to be taken with one example- A brand-new compound known as chloromethane is developed when methane reacts with chlorine. The brand-new compound is composed of a CH3 group that is bonded to a chlorine atom.

When an alkane having hydrogen is removed from one bond, the is dubbed an alkyl group. This Alkyl team is regularly denoted by the letter R the same as halogens represent by the letter X. Below is a methane‐chlorine reaction that deserve to be generalised as


Methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) room the first four alkanes. Methane gas, whose molecular formula is CH4, is the simplest alkane.


Alkanes space single-bond hydrocarbon atoms. Three species of alkanes space available: linear straight alkanes branched alkanes and cyclic alkanes.

See more: Jackson To Idaho Falls Distance From Idaho Falls To Jackson Hole


Usually, alkanes are not considered functional groups; rather, an alkane is a compound that lacks sensible groups. A carbon-carbon twin bond is a functional team in an alkene.