Canada includes within its borders a vast selection of geographic features. In general, the country’s landform structure deserve to be taken into consideration as a substantial basin much more than 3,220 miles (5,200 km) in diameter. The Cordillera in the west, the Appalachians in the southeast, the hills of north Labrador and of Baffin Island in the northeast, and the Innuitian hills in the north type its high rim, when Hudson Bay, set close come the center of the huge platform that the Canadian Shield, rectal the container bottom. The western rim of the container is greater and an ext massive 보다 its east counterpart, and also pieces the the rim, especially in the far northwest and in the south, room missing.

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The key lines that Canadian landforms continue well into the joined States, intimately linking the location of both countries. To develop such a huge country, Canadians had actually to create transportation and also communication web links in an east-west direction, against the physiographic serial of the continent. The Canadian north remains one of the least resolved and least economically exploited parts of the world.


Yellowknife, Northwest Territories
Yellowknife, ~ above the good Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada.
George Hunter

In the south east is the Manitoba lowland, wherein elevations space generally below 1,000 feet (300 metres). That is underlaid through lacustrine sediments the the glacial Lake Agassiz and is the flattest soil in the inner plains. In enhancement to Lake Winnipeg, it includes Lake Manitoba and also Lake Winnipegosis. The abundant southern portion, the Red river valley, is extended with black color clay and silt soils.

To the west of the Manitoba lowland, the floor rises in two steps: the Saskatchewan plain, which varieties from 1,500 to 2,100 feet (450 come 650 metres), and the Alberta plain, i m sorry is an ext than 2,500 feet (750 metres). These levels are rolling landscapes of glacial deposits set over nearly horizontal bedrock. In some locations the undulating plains are interspersed with arrays of low hills (glacial moraines) studded v kettle lakes and also flat-bottomed, steep-banked valleys cut by glacial meltwater, now populated by rivers such together the Assiniboine and also the Saskatchewan system. Ponds referred to as sloughs period the landscape of both these plains. These lands likewise contain big potash store and, specifically in Alberta, enormous reserves that coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The Cypress Hills the southwestern Saskatchewan and also southeastern Alberta climb to an elevation of 4,816 feet (1,468 metres), the highest point in mainland Canada in between the Rocky mountains (Canadian Rockies) and Labrador.


Appalachian an ar of southeastern brand-new Brunswick
Forested hills in the Appalachian an ar of southeastern brand-new Brunswick, Canada.
E. Otto/Comstock

The west Cordillera

The Cordilleran region comprises a series of mountain belts some 500 miles (800 km) wide along Canada’s Pacific coast. The great heights and angularity that the peaks, numerous of which rise to an ext than 10,000 feet (3,000 metres), suggest that this are lot younger hills than the Appalachians. Signs of alpine glaciation space widely evident. In countless places sink glaciers remain active, and snowcapped peaks are typically hidden in the clouds. Several of the hill slopes room so precipitous that they are bare that trees. Regarded from above, the entire landscape appears to be an rarely often rare sea of mountain ranges, trending in a north-south direction.

Moraine Lake, Banff nationwide Park, Alberta
Moraine Lake, Banff nationwide Park, Alberta, Canada.

The Rocky Mountains comprise the eastern section of the Cordillera indigenous the Yukon border southern to the 49th parallel, wherein they continue into the unified States. The high arrays of the Canadian Rockies kind the continent Divide between eastward- and westward-flowing rivers and contain some of the most rugged and picturesque landscapes in phibìc America. The highway between Banff and also Jasper, Alberta, is particularly noted for that is spectacular hill scenery. The Rockies include much more than 30 peaks exceeding 10,000 feet (3,000 metres), including Mount Robson, i beg your pardon rises to 12,972 feet (3,954 metres). 5 of Canada’s nationwide parks are situated within the Rockies, including Banff, i beg your pardon was created in 1885. Three significant passes cut through the Rockies: the Yellowhead Pass, i m sorry is supplied by the Canadian national Railways, and also the Kicking equine Pass and Crowsnest Pass, i beg your pardon are supplied by the Canadian Pacific Railway. The Trans-Canada Highway is additionally routed v the Kicking equine Pass.

The front variety of the Canadian Rockies is bordered top top the west by a major valley, around 15 mile (25 km) vast and several thousand feet deep, well-known as the Rocky hill Trench. Come the west that the trench the Columbia hills rise to peaks of more than 10,000 feet (3,000 metres). The Columbia Mountain mechanism includes, from eastern to west, the Purcell, Selkirk, and Monashee groups. Northwest the these room the Cariboo Mountains, famed for their helicopter alpine skiing. Between the Columbia Mountains and also the coastline Mountains farther west is a broad region of internal mountains and also plateaus. Although few of the surface ar of this region is reasonably level, many of it has actually been folded into mountains and also hills.

The coastline Mountains, part of the Pacific hill system, are an additional group of high mountains, with numerous peaks increasing over 15,000 feet (4,500 metres) high; they include Canada’s highest possible peak, mountain Logan, which reaches 19,551 feet (5,959 metres) in the Saint Elias Mountains. All along the coastline there space spectacular fjords v precipitous cliffs that often rise 7,000 feet (2,100 metres) from the water. Turn off the coast is a chain of mountains that appear as a collection of islands, the largest of which room Vancouver Island and also Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). In the far north the key mountain teams are the Richardson, Mackenzie, Selwyn, and Pelly mountains. The rough Cassiar mountains stand simply south of the Yukon border. The an ar is a major source of lead, zinc, copper, and also gold; its east fringes contain charcoal deposits.

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The Arctic Archipelago

The Arctic Archipelago is written of countless islands north of the Canadian mainland. The southeastern islands room an extension of the Canadian Shield. The balance is composed of 2 distinctive landform regions: the Arctic lowlands to the south and also the hills of the Innuitian an ar to the north. The Innuitian arrays are geologically young mountains similar to the western Cordillera, with some peaks and ridges getting to 10,000 feet (3,000 metres). Much of the Innuitian region is permanently covered with snow and also ice v which mountain peaks periodically protrude.