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Born:October 14, 1633LondonEngland...(Show more)Died:September 16, 1701 or September 17, 1701France...(Show more)Title / Office:king (1685-1688), Englandking (1685-1688), Irelandking (1685-1688), Scotland...(Show more)House / Dynasty:House the Stuart...(Show more)Notable family members Members:spouse mary of Modenafather Charles Imother Henrietta Mariadaughter mary IIdaughter Anneson James Edward, the Old Pretenderbrother Charles IIbrother Henry Stuart, fight it out of Gloucestersister mary of Orangesister Henrietta ann of England...(Show more)
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Top Questions
When go James II rule?

James II succeeded his brother, Charles II, as king of England, Scotland, and also Ireland in 1685 and also was deposed through the Glorious change in 1688.


What is James II known for?

James II converted to roman Catholicism before coming come the throne. His location of Catholic allies in high location in the court and also army, coupled with the bear of his son, alarm the Anglican establishment, that invited the Protestant wilhelm of Orange and also his wife, james’s daughter Mary, to invade, bring about the Glorious Revolution.


What were the outcomes of the reign and overthrow that James II?

James II to be the last British Stuart king in the direct line. The Glorious change that toppled him also permanently established Parliament as the judgment power in England. After being overthrown, James II check to reclaim his throne by invading Ireland and was repulsed in the fight of the Boyne, still commemorated by Protestants in north Ireland.


Who to be James II’s children?

James II’s very first wife, Anne, was Protestant (though she converted to Catholicism), and their daughters were mar II (wife of william of Orange and queen the England) and also Anne, who thrived Mary together queen. James’s second wife, mar of Modena, was roman inn Catholic, and their kid was James Edward, the Old Pretender.


James II, additionally called (1644–85) duke of York and (1660–85) duke that Albany, (born October 14, 1633, London, England—died September 5/6 , 1701, Saint-Germain, France), king the England, Scotland, and Ireland native 1685 come 1688, and also the critical Stuart monarch in the direct male line. He was deposed in the Glorious revolution (1688–89) and replaced by wilhelm III and Mary II. That revolution, created by James’s roman Catholicism, permanently created Parliament together the judgment power that England.

James II was the second surviving boy of Charles I and Henrietta Maria. He to be formally created duke the York in January 1644. During the English Civil battles he live at Oxford—from October 1642 until the city surrendered in June 1646. He to be then removed by bespeak of parliament to St. James’s Palace, native which he escaped come the Netherlands in April 1648. The rejoined his mom in France in beforehand 1649. Authorized the French military in April 1652, he served in four campaigns under the good French basic the vicomte de Turenne, who commended his courage and ability. When his brothers Charles II break up an alliance through Spain versus France in 1656 he reluctantly changed sides, and also he commanded the ideal wing that the Spanish army at the battle of the Dunes in June 1658.

After the restoration of his brother Charles II come the English throne in 1660, James was developed duke that Albany. He became lord high admiral and also did lot to maintain the efficiency and improve the company of the navy. He additionally showed significant interest in early american ventures; it was on his plan that brand-new Amsterdam was seized from the netherlands in 1664 and renamed new York in his honour. That commanded the fleet in the opening campaigns of the 2nd and 3rd Dutch wars. This to be to be his critical taste of active military command till 1688.

In politics he was a solid supporter the the earl the Clarendon, who daughter anne he married in September 1660. Both before and after marriage he had the call of gift as great a libertine as his brother. However in 1668 or 1669 he to be admitted come the roman inn Catholic Church, though on his brother’s insistence he ongoing to take the Anglican sacraments till 1672, and also he attend Anglican solutions until 1676. Charles II likewise insisted the James’s daughters, Mary and also Anne, be elevated in the good news faith.


James’s counter had tiny effect top top his political views, i beg your pardon were already formed by his reverence for his dead father and also his nearby association with the High Church party. James, in fact, to be always more favourable come the Anglican church 보다 was his protestant brother. He welcomed the prospect of brother reentering the European battle on the next of the Dutch; and also he consented come the marital relationship of his elder daughter, Mary, come the Protestant wilhelm of Orange in 1677. For most of his life James to be the spokesman that the conservative Anglican courtiers, who believed that his see on monarchy and also Parliament corresponded with theirs, who discovered his formal and also humourless nature more congenial than Charles’s slippery geniality, and who respect his frank acknowledgment of his spiritual beliefs.

In watch of the queen’s childlessness, however, the switch of the heir presumptive come the throne roused great alarm in the basic public. James resigned every one of his workplaces in 1673 quite than take an anti-Catholic oath applied by the so-called test Act and also thus made his position known publicly. Later that year, his very first wife having actually died, that gave more offense by marrying a roman inn Catholic princess, mary of Modena. Through 1678 James’s roman inn Catholicism had developed a climate of hysteria in i beg your pardon the fabricated story of a Popish Plot to assassinate Charles and also put his brother on the throne was typically believed. From 1679 to 1681 three successive Parliaments strove to exclude James from the sequence by statute. During this dilemm James spent lengthy periods in exile in ~ Brussels and also Edinburgh. Yet owing mostly to his own tenacious defense the his rights, the exclusionists to be defeated. In 1682 he went back to England and resumed the leadership of the Anglican Tories, whose power in local government was reestablished and increased through the “remodeling” that the borough corporations and the federal government of the counties in your favour. By 1684 James’s affect on state plan was paramount, and when the finally pertained to the throne ~ above February 6, 1685, through very little overt the contrary or even criticism, that seemed likely that the solid support of the Anglicans would certainly make him among the most powerful of the 17th-century british kings.

The brand-new royalist Parliament the assembled in might 1685 poll James a huge income, and there seemed to be no reason why he must not over time secure enough toleration because that his coreligionists. However unsuccessful rebellions led by the duke of Monmouth in England and also the fight it out of Argyll in Scotland, in the summer that 1685, significant a turning point in his attitude. James’s mistrust of his subjects, conceived in the unstable 1670s, to be at when sharpened. The rebellions were put down with great ferocity, the army was considerably increased, and the brand-new regiments to be granted to roman inn Catholic officers who had actually had military experience abroad and whose commitment was undoubted. This critical act of plan provoked a quarrel between king and Parliament, which to be prorogued in November 1685, never to fulfill again. In 1686 the department between the king and also his previous allies, the Anglican Tories, deepened. ~ a variety of them had actually been replaced, the judges of king’s Bench in the collusive activity Godden v. Hales found in favour the the king’s strength to excuse individuals from the check Oath; roman inn Catholics were admitted to the Privy Council and also subsequently to the high offices of state. A commission because that ecclesiastical causes was established to provide James’s strength as can be fried governor that the Anglican church, and also its an initial act was to suspend Henry Compton, bishop of London, one of the many outspoken doubters of royal policy.

In 1687 James increase his roman Catholic policy and also dismissed his Anglican brothers-in-law the earl that Clarendon and the earl the Rochester. Magdalen College, Oxford, was provided over because that the usage of roman Catholics, and a papal nuncio was officially accredited come St. James Palace. In April James issued the so-called declaration of Indulgence, suspending the laws against Roman Catholics and also Protestant dissenters alike; in July he liquified Parliament, and also in September he introduced an intensive campaign to victory over the protestant dissenters and with their aid secure a new Parliament much more amenable come his wishes.

What those wishes were is still no clear: several of his utterances imply a genuine belief in spiritual toleration together a matter of principle; others allude to the facility of roman inn Catholicism as the leading if no the exclusive faith of the state. This confusion may well reflect the state the James’s own mind, which indeed deteriorated in the year 1687–88, and some the his assertions, accusations, and threats currently verge ~ above the insane.

The unexpected news the the queen was pregnant (November 1687), creating the prospect of a roman inn Catholic succession, had great effect on many Protestants; if a wholesale “remodeling” the borough corporations, lord lieutenancies, deputy lieutenancies, and also magistracies that winter inflamed the majority of the nobility and gentry, whose political and also social power experienced by it. Ever since the spring of 1687 many English leader had been in touch with William that Orange, the husband the the heiress presumptive Mary and also the champion of protestant Europe against Louis XIV the France. The spark was touched off by James himself, when he reissued his explanation of Indulgence on April 27, 1688, and also on might 4 ordered it to be check out in the churches. The archbishop the Canterbury and six of his bishops petitioned James to retract the order. Their petition was consequently published, and also James do the mistake of prosecuting its authors because that seditious libel. Meanwhile, top top June 10, in slightly mysterious circumstances, the queen offered birth come a son.

On June 30 the seven bishops to be acquitted—a remarkable defeat for the government—and that very same day 7 leading Englishmen sent a letter inviting william of Orange to command an military to England and call a totally free Parliament come arbitrate on the legitimacy the the prince that Wales. By September William’s intentions to be obvious, however James declined Louis XIV’s offer of aid for fear of the reaction in England; in any case he was confident in the capability of his forces to defeat invasion. William cruised under covering of the basic war that had by then damaged out in Europe, evaded the English fleet, and landed in ~ Brixham ~ above Tor bay on November 5 (November 15, new Style), 1688. In the subsequent “campaign,” james’s Protestant police officers deserted come the foe in such huge numbers the he dared not commit the military to a pitched battle. This, in addition to the defection the his daughter Anne, ultimately shattered his nerve. That attempted come flee come France however was intercepted in Kent; 12 job later, ~ above December 23, he was permitted to escape. Top top February 12, 1689, the Convention Parliament asserted that James had actually abdicated and the next day offered the crown to William and also Mary. The scot Parliament followed suit in May.

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In in march 1689 James landed in Ireland, and also a parliament summoned come Dublin identified him as king. But his Irish-French military was defeated by william at the Boyne (July 1 , 1690), and he returned to France. William’s generals reconquered Ireland the following year. In Ireland James had displayed none the his former military ability, and he currently aged rapidly, falling increasingly under the affect of his pietistic wife. He came to be daily much more absorbed in his devotions, and also his an ext aggressive pendant soon concerned regard him together something that a liability. The treaty of Rijswijk between England and France (1697) gotten rid of his last really hopes of restoration.