l>BIOL 237 class Notes - skeleton System
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The SkeletalSystem
Bones room the offal of the skeletal system. Functions of theskeletal system are:support - it creates the body"s framework to assistance the muscle andorgans.protection - the skeletal systems protects by1) developing the bony cavities about organs, e.g. The thoracic cavity protects the love andlungs, thecranial cavity protects the brain.2) the red marrow in bones produces white blood cells which protect versus invadingmicroorganisms.movement - bones kind joints which provide levers for motion such aswalking, lifting, etc.hematopoiesis (blood cell production) - the red marrow produces both redand white blood cells.mineral storage and also homeostasis - the skeleton develops a reservoir ofminerals, especially calcium, formaintenance of homeostasis.
Cells uncovered in bonetissue:osteoprogenitor cells - these are like "stem cells" because that bone. They have actually thecapacity to divide andproliferate to kind osteoblasts, bone forming cells which proactively producebone tissue. Castle comprisethe periosteal and endosteal cells (see below) which heat the bone and also its cavities. In maturation bonewheregrowth and remodeling is not arising these cells are quiescent, however they room thought to functioninmaintenance and nutritional assistance of the osteocytes in the basic matrix,with which they connectby means of gap junctions.Osteoprogenitor cells are derived from mesenchymal cells (a fundamental embryologicalgerm tissue)and have actually the ability to distinguish into adipose cells, chondroblasts, and fibroblasts and also canmodifytheir morphologic (physical) and physiologic qualities in solution to specific stimuli. osteoblasts - these room the "bone creating cells" i m sorry secrete the collagenand ground substance thatconstitutes lungemine.comineralized bone (osteoid), and also subsequently are responsible forcalcification that thematrix. This cells additionally communicate through one another and also with osteocytes by gap junctions.Osteocytes are mature bone cells, differentiated from osteoblasts, whichare responsible for maintainingthe bone matrix. They deserve to synthesize and resorb (break down) the matrix to maintainhomeostasis. Eachosteocyte rectal a space, the lacuna, i m sorry conforms to the shape of the cell surrounding bymatrixsecreted when the cell to be an osteoblast. Osteocytes expand processes throughcanaliculi to connect toneighboring cell by way of space junctions.Osteoclasts are large multinucleated cell whose role is come resorbbone. Osteoclasts dissolve thematrix and osteoid through acids and hydrolytic enzymes. Osteoclasts room phagocytic and are derivedfrommonocytes and also not indigenous the very same line together the other bone cells.
Tissues found inbones:osseous tissues - bone organization properOsseous tissue has actually a matrix containing not natural salts and organic fibers. Theinorganic matrix offers the rigidity and hardness come bone and is written of acombination the calcium and also phosphorus salts called hydroxyapatite. Theorganiccollagen fibers provide a bone that tensile strength and also resistance come stress.cortical (compact) bone - do of a dense regular plan of osteons(Haversian systems). Compact bone is found in the diaphysis (shaft) of lengthy bonesand together the outer layer of all bones.cancellous (spongy) bone - is composed of trabeculae (a network) of thin,connectingspicules which kind a meshwork in the inner of bones. Spaces in between thetrabeculae contain marrow and blood vessels.redmarrow - myeloid (blood producing) tissue discovered in the spaces in the spongybone, produce both red and white blood cells. Red marrow walk not rise inproportion to bone growth, and also in the adult lot of the red marrow alters toyellow (fatty) marrow, especially in the medullary canal.yellow marrow - Consists greatly of fat cells. It have the right to revert to red marrowunderextreme hematopoietic stress, such as in blood loss.periosteum - a fibrous covering of bones which connects to tendons andligamentsand anchors blood vessels and also nerves. The inner layer of the periosteum containsosteoprogenitor cells, acquired from mesenchyme cells, this arethe cells whichdivide to end up being osteoblasts under proper stimuli. Really strongconnection is created with tendons and ligaments since the collagen fibers fromthese structures, called Sharpey"s fibers, expand at an angle right into the bonewherethey are continuous with collagen yarn in its extracellular matrix.endosteum - fibrous organization lining the medullary canal. Frequently only oncecells thickits cells are likewise osteoprogenitor cells.medullary canal - central canal that a lengthy bone. It provides the bone lighterand inadults includes yellow marrow.articular cartilage - hyaline cartilage i beg your pardon forms component of synovialjoints.
Osteons, or Haversian systems, space theunits of framework in maturation bone. Lock aretightly i ordered it running normally parallel come the long axis that the bone. In ~ the centerof every is an Haversian canal which carries blood vessels and nerves.Canaliculi(small canals) attach the Haversian canals v lacunae comprise theosteocytes.Osteocytes extend processes into the canaliculi and also receive nutrients and O2 and also getrid that wastes and CO2 by diffusion through the canaliculi. The lacunae andcanaliculi kind lamellae or class of 2 types: concentric lamellaeform circularrings around each Haversian canal, and interstitial lamellae, acquired frompreviousosteons, to fill in the spaces between existing osteons.
See figure 6.7
Bone formation(ossification): two types of bone breakthrough occur,differentiated by even if it is membrane or cartilage is the precursor for the bone.Subsequent remodeling of both species renders similar tissues for all bones.Intramembraneous ossification occurs in the flat bones such together those in thecranium and also begins through a design of fibrous connective tissue. At about 8 weeksinto development the mesenchymal cells accumulation and distinguish to becomeosteoblasts and also begin the ossification process, first secreting the organiccomponents the bone (osteoid, make of collagen and proteoglycans) together spikesradiating native an ossification center. Later not natural salts will certainly be deposited on theosteoid to type spicules of bone which type trabeculae in the basic shape that thebone. Whereby the spikes fulfill irregular fibrous joints dubbed sutures will be formed.Osteocytes extend their procedures through canaliculi while new osteoprogenitorcells keep the number of osteoblasts for continued growth the the bone spicules.
See number 6.8
Endochondral ossification is finest exemplified in the longbones. (See figure 6.8):1) Mesenchymal cells accumulation and distinguish into chondroblasts whichproducea version of hyaline cartilage that comes before each bone. At about 8 weeks intodevelopment cell in the mid-region begin to identify into osteoblasts whichproduce a slim layer the bone roughly the cartilage model. In lengthy bones a bone collardevelops approximately what will become the shaft (diaphysis). 2) Cartilage cell inthecenter hypertrophy and also cause calcification of the matrix, and also then die as theybecome isolated from your nutrient source. V the death of the chondrocytes thematrix breaks under resulting in at an early stage formation of the marrow cavity. 3) Bythethird month blood vessels dubbed the periosteal bud attack the developingcavitybringing in osteoprogenitor cells and also other cells and spongy bone and also marrowbegins come form. 4) At birth the lengthy bones covers a collar that cortical bonealongthe shaft and also a emerging medullary canal. Second ossification centers form inthe epiphyses which push outward and to the center while osssification continuesalong the diaphysis toward the epiphyses. 5) Ossification the the epiphyses.Theproximal end begins near birth and continues till 18 or 19 yrs. The age. The distalend starts 1 to 1.5 year old and continues till the at an early stage 20"s, return allsubstantial growth has ended in the late teens.The just remaining cartilage is in the epiphyseal plate and also the articular cartilage.Bone growth stops once the epiphyseal bowl hardens.
Bone Remodeling:Your bones are constantly remodeled throughout your life. This procedure helps to store themstrong and tomaintain their integrity for withstanding stresses, and also maintaining homeostasis. The processinvolvesfirst osteoclastic resorption of one area of bone ,and then subsequent capillary penetration andosteoblastic activity to develop a brand-new osteon. In a healthy and balanced adult the price of resorption roughlyequals therate of bone deposition. In older world the rate of deposition often falls listed below that of resorptionandosteoporosis results. Bone remodeling is created by physical stress placed on the bone byexercise,and will certainly be tailored come provide specific adaptation to that stress. In that way a load lifter"s boneswillshow development patterns peculiar to the stresses inserted on the bones.
Hormones necessary to bone growth and homeostasis:growth hormone - native the anterior pituitary, this hormone is necessaryfor normalgrowth and advancement of the skeleton. A deficiency (hyposecretion) that GHduring childhood to produce a dwarf, an excess (hypersecretion) produce a giant.Hypersecretion in adulthood produce acromegaly, a disorder in i m sorry the form ofmany bones, particularly those in the challenge becomes exaggerated.thyroxine - this hormone, actually its energetic product, regulates metabolismof mostcells including those in bone.testosterone - this and also other androgens are important for growth in massanddensity that bone. Testosterone is current in both males and females in varyingamounts.estrogens - these hormones are essential for development in size of bone andfor bonemaintenance. They also are present in varying quantities in both sexes.parathyroid hormone - this hormone exerts the primary manage in calciumhomeostasis. Calcium is vital in the blood for numerous functions and also when itslevel drops parathyroid hormone is secreted. This hormone supplies several methods toraise calcium levels in the blood: 1) raised Vitamin D production. VitaminD is ahormone who precursor is produced in the skin in response to sunlight and also thenprocessed in the liver and also kidney to become active Vitamin D3. 2)Vitamin D3increases calcium absorption in the gut. There is no this vitamin calcium is notabsorbed come any great degree. 3) raised reabsorption of calcium in thekidney.Much calcium is lost to the urine, so as soon as you need an ext in the blood this is animportant source. 4) resorption of bone. PTH rises osteoclastic activity torelease calcium right into the blood.Calcitonin - Normally crucial only in children, this hormone is secretedbyspecial cells in the thyroid. Its role is to wake up the absorb of calcium intogrowing bone and the deposition of bone matrix. It has been offered in adult to aid inthe uptake of calcium in osteoporosis patients.
Osteoporosis, a disorder involvingdemineralization the bone usually linked with larger individualscan be concerned several factors:1) deficiency of diet calcium2) diminished estrogen levels usual in post-menopausal women. This may be treated withHRT,hormone replacement therapy.3) reduced task and exercise, including:4) decreased weight bearing anxiety on the bones. This is important in stimulating bone growthandreplacement at any age.Osteoporosis treatment may incorporate calcium formulated with other minerals, hormonereplacementtherapy, calcitonin, and also an exercise program.Other disorders:rickets - Vitamin D deficiency in children. Vitamin D is essential forabsorption of calcium. The resultof rickets is wrong mineralization which results in stunted growth and weakened bones.osteomalacia - Vitamin D deficiency in adults. Reasons demineralization ofthe bones.

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Paget"s disease - a disorder of unknown reason which requires thedestruction of regular bone organization andits replacement through tissue of irregular and unorganized structure. View Musculoskeletal Pathology Images
NOTE: these notes do not encompass the bones and contours friend are forced to know (See ShortList the Bones and Contours). Instructor will go over countless of these in class, depending ontimeavailable.