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Mūsā ns is widely thought about the wealthiest guy in history. The made his wealth and also that the Mali well-known through a long and extravagant expedition to Mecca in 1324, the 17th year that his power as emperor of Mali. Mūsā’s rule defined the golden age of Mali.
Like two mansolu (rulers the Mali) prior to him, Mūsā I carried out the hajj as an action of devotion in line v Islamic tradition. Furthermore, his hajj in 1324 remained in some means an plot of solidarity that showed his link to various other rulers and peoples throughout the Islamic world.
Mūsā I’s trip caravan to Mecca in 1324 comprised some 60,000 people and an immeasurable lot of gold. He quit in Cairo along the way, and also his luxurious spending and gift offering was so extensive that that diluted the worth of gold by 10 come 25 percent and influenced Cairo’s economic climate for at the very least 12 year afterward.
Upon his return in 1324, Mūsā I’s pious pilgrimage influenced him to commission two huge mosques in Timbuktu and Gao. He urged his subjects’ immersion in scholarship, the arts, and the Qurʾān. He intended come abdicate the throne and return to Mecca but died prior to he was able to carry out so.
Mūsā I’s hajj left a lasting impression that Mali’s splendour top top both the Islamic and European worlds. In Mali he advocated trans-Saharan trade that more increased the empire’s wealth. Under his reign, Mali overcame the adjoining kingdom that Songhai. His spiritual devotion added to the spread out of Islam throughout West Africa.
Mūsā ns of Mali, Mūsā additionally spelled Musa or Mousa, likewise called Kankan Mūsā or Mansa Musa, (died 1332/37?), mansa (emperor) of the West African empire of Mali from 1307 (or 1312). Mansa Mūsā left a realm remarkable for that extent and also riches—he constructed the great Mosque in ~ Timbuktu—but he is best remembered in the middle East and also Europe for the splendour the his expedition to Mecca (1324).
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Mansa Mūsā, either the grandson or the grandnephew of Sundiata, the founder of his dynasty, involved the throne in 1307. In the 17th year of his power (1324), he collection out top top his famed pilgrimage to Mecca. It to be this trip that awakened the human being to the stupendous riches of Mali. Cairo and Mecca received this royal personage, whose glittering procession, in the superlatives employed by Arab chroniclers, virtually put Africa’s sun to shame. Traveling from his funding of Niani ~ above the top Niger river to Walata (Oualâta, Mauritania) and also on come Tuat (now in Algeria) prior to making his means to Cairo, Mansa Mūsā to be accompanied through an outstanding caravan consisting of 60,000 men consisting of a personal retinue that 12,000 enslaved persons, all clad in brocade and Persian silk. The emperor self rode ~ above horseback and also was straight preceded through 500 enslaved persons, each transporting a gold-adorned staff. In addition, Mansa Mūsā had a baggage train of 80 camels, each moving 300 pounds that gold.
Mansa Mūsā’s prodigious generosity and also piety, and the well clothes and exemplary action of his followers, did no fail to develop a most-favourable impression. The Cairo that Mansa Mūsā checked out was ruled by among the biggest of the Mamlūk sultans, Al-Malik al-Nāṣir. The black color emperor’s great civility notwithstanding, the meeting between the 2 rulers could have ended in a major diplomatic incident, for so absorbed was Mansa Mūsā in his spiritual observances that he was only with difficulty persuaded to pay a official visit to the sultan. The historian al-ʿUmarī, who went to Cairo 12 year after the emperor’s visit, uncovered the citizens of this city, with a populace estimated at one million, still singing the praises of Mansa Mūsā. So lavish was the emperor in his spending that he submarine the Cairo industry with gold, thereby bring about such a decline in its value that the industry some 12 year later had still not completely recovered.
Rulers the West afri states had actually made pilgrimages come Mecca prior to Mansa Mūsā, yet the impact of his flamboyant trip was to advertise both Mali and also Mansa Mūsā well beyond the afri continent and also to wake up a desire among the Muslim kingdoms of phibìc Africa, and among many of European countries as well, to reach the source of this significant wealth.
Conquest that Songhai kingdom
Mansa Mūsā, whose empire was one of the biggest in the civilization at that time, is report to have observed that it would take a year to take trip from one end of his empire to the other. While this was most likely an exaggeration, it is recognized that throughout his expedition to Mecca one of his generals, Sagmandia (Sagaman-dir), expanded the empire by catching the Songhai resources of Gao. The Songhai kingdom measure up several numerous miles across, so that the conquest meant the acquisition of a substantial territory. The 14th-century traveller Ibn Baṭṭūṭah provided that the took about four months to take trip from the northern borders of the Mali empire to Niani in the south.
The emperor to be so overjoyed by the new acquisition that he determined to hold-up his return to Niani and to visit Gao instead, over there to receive the an individual submission that the Songhai king and take the king’s two sons as hostages. At both Gao and Timbuktu, a Songhai city almost rivalling Gao in importance, Mansa Mūsā commissioned Abū Isḥāq al-Sāḥilī, a Granada poet and also architect who had travelled through him native Mecca, to construct mosques. The Gao mosque was built of scorched bricks, which had not, till then, been supplied as a product for building in West Africa.
Timbuktu, Mali: an excellent Mosque
Great Mosque, constructed by Emperor Mūsā ns of Mali in 1327, Timbuktu, Mali.
Under Mansa Mūsā, Timbuktu flourished to be a really important commercial city having caravan connections with Egypt and with every other necessary trade centres in north Africa. Next by side through the encouragement of trade and commerce, learning and the arts received royal patronage. Scholars that were greatly interested in history, Qurʾānic theology, and law were to do the mosque the Sankore in Timbuktu a teaching centre and also to lay the structures of the college of Sankore. Mansa Mūsā probably died in 1332.
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The organization and also smooth administration of a purely African empire, the starting of the university of Sankore, the development of trade in Timbuktu, the architectural advancements in Gao, Timbuktu, and Niani and, indeed, transparent the totality of Mali and in the succeeding Songhai empire are all testimony to Mansa Mūsā’s superior bureaucratic gifts. In addition, the moral and religious principles he had actually taught his subjects endured after his death.