The Baroque duration developed after the Renaissance and Mannerism arts periods. It brought with it new perspectives around life, art, religion, and also culture. The Baroque style moved away from the severe elements depicted through the good news style. The Catholic Church supported the development of Baroque v its beginnings in Rome, Italy, and eventually in European nations like northern Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Austria, southerly Germany, and also Russia. Below, we discuss this decorative and fanciful art period.

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Table of Content

1 historic Foundations: once Was the Baroque Period?2 What Is Baroque Art?3 well known Baroque Artists4 Other well known Baroque Painters6 typically Asked Questions

Historical Foundations: once Was the Baroque Period?

The Baroque period began during the the so late 1500s till the beforehand 1700s, and was wide and differed throughout Europe. Its ethics of extravagance, ornateness, and also decorated details were shown in a variety of social mediums like paintings, architecture, sculpture, literature, and also music. It was a duration of rebirth in arts and culture with deep roots in the spiritual structures and powers of western Europe in ~ the time, which was the Catholic Church, and presently referred to as the roman inn Catholic Church.

Baroque arts of any kind was inseparably linked to the Catholic Church. In fact, the Church educated what art must look choose in bespeak to have actually a preferred effect upon the people. It to be made to accumulate grandeur and awe in the civilization who competent it, and became a wholly brand-new sensory experience.

The Catholic Church donate the Baroque style because it necessary a new and enlivened technique to inspire and uplift the common people again, and also to affix them with the Church and also its majesty. ~ the turmoil of war and also conflicts indigenous the Reformation, this to be a refreshing revival for the Church.

The driving pressures behind this deserve to be thought about propagandist, together it used the modes of visual representation and also communication (painting, architecture, sculpture) in order to keep the credibility and authority that the Catholic Church.

To recognize the developments that Baroque Art carried to art and culture, we need to look at the historical foundations underpinning this period.

The Reformation: The Catholic Church and also Protestants

The Baroque duration developed from considerable political and religious upheaval in Europe, such together the Reformation in between the Protestants and also Catholic Church during the 1500s. Return the reformation may have actually started with many other spiritual figures prior to Martin Luther (a German monk, priest, and theologian), countless scholarly sources suggest to him together the catalyst of the Reformation, which collection these occasions in motion.

Martin Luther is known for his publishing entitled, “95 Theses”, which he composed in 1517 out of apprehension around various questionable action by the Catholic Church. His apprehensions were primarily about the Church (under Pope Leo X) marketing indulgences, otherwise known as all indulgences, to world to raise money to build St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City the Rome.

Indulgences were almost like certificate guaranteeing people that they would go come Heaven and spend much less time in Purgatory if they offered donations to the Church, walk a an excellent deed, visited a certain place, or recited a prayer. In this case, the gaue won donations assisted the Pope build the Basilica. Martin Luther did not agree v this form of procedure, as he believed no one essential to pay for their location in Heaven. Furthermore, he had actually other deeper concerns around the Church and also its view on various spiritual matters relating to the Catholic Sacraments.

Beginning the the text of the first printing of the German version of the 95 Theses in 1557; Martin Luther, windy domain, via Wikimedia Commons

During this time, martin Luther taught moral Theology at Wittenberg University and also he was likewise a preacher. He heard around the info that indulgences to be being sold, and was made aware of sermons being provided near Wittenberg by an additional preacher dubbed Johann Tetzel, a German Dominican preacher who was also the cool Commissioner because that indulgences.

Martin Luther sent out the “95 Theses” to the Archbishop the Mainz, who was Albert of Brandenburg in ~ the time, to inform him about what was happening. He also posted the on church doors in Wittenberg, which was a usual practice to do. The ease of access of the print press allowed Martin Luther to make numerous copies of his publication. In fact, hundreds were published in Germany, as well as translated to German indigenous Latin. The document eventually landing in the hand of numerous respected intellectuals.

It was in 1521 when Martin Luther come to strong disagreements v the Church, as he would certainly not renounce his views when asked to. Because of this, he was denounced native the Church and also considered a “notorious heretic” in the Edict that Worms, declared by Emperor Charles V.

After the rotate of events from the Reformation, i m sorry was thought to have ended either during the peace of Augsburg in 1555 or during the contract of Westphalia in 1648, the Catholic Church created a Counter-Reformation. This started during 1545 to 1563 with the council of Trent. The the supervisory board of Trent consisted of many meetings addressing various issues and procedures existing within the Church and also its systems.

Protestants versus Counter-Reformation Developments

The Counter-Reformation also sparked brand-new developments in art and spirituality. The Protestants search to do away through a lot of the Catholic Church’s religious imagery, agreeing the it was too extravagant. Part Reformists violently destroyed the Catholic Church’s religious imagery, recognized as iconoclasm. The Protestants believed religious images must only depict Jesus or pictures of the cross, in line through Protestant values.

As a an answer to the major styles shown in Protestantism, the Catholic Church believed spiritual imagery hosted a the majority of power. Furthermore, throughout the occasions of the council of Trent the was determined what religious imagery would be acceptable or not. The “pastoral role” of arts was thought about a primary purpose of spiritual imagery, meaning that artists can depict the stories of Christ’s suffering, crucifixion, and many that the saints pertained to Biblical stories. The the supervisory board members made strictly rules that all imagery can not contain any idolatrous innuendos.

What followed were new artistic styles and attitudes portrayed in religious imagery, much better known as the Baroque period.

A failure Pearl: definition of Baroque

By understanding the meaning of the term “Baroque”, we will certainly gain more context about what Baroque arts stood for and was. The art occurred during this time was the visual result and achievement borne indigenous deeper historical, social, and political worries in Europe. It was period of discovery undoubtedly, introducing new concepts and also techniques within the arts world, and hence, an achievement.

The term baroque has been understood within assorted contexts. The is a French word, but its root origin is traced come the Portuguese barocco, which method “a flawed pearl”. This term was regarded jewelry as early on as the 1500s onwards. It was offered to define the shapes of real pearls.

There are other interpretations of the term the relate to philosophy, specifically logic, or Aristotelian Logic. Together a Latin term, baroco, it was used to assist with remembering syllogisms, i beg your pardon were supplied in deductive reasoning formulas. Several scholars and philosophers used this word past the college of logic, for example, Michel de Montaigne characterized it as “bizarre and also uselessly complicated”.

La Visite à la grand-mère (‘Visit come Grandmother’, c. 1645-1648) by Louis Le Nain; Louis Le Nain, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a philosopher and also musician in the 1700s, defined Baroque music together being disharmonious in the Dictionnaire de musique (‘Dictionary of music’, 1768), stating, “Baroque music is the in i beg your pardon the harmony is confused, overcharged v modulations and also dissonance. The song is hard and also unnatural, the interval difficult, and also the activity constrained. It would seem the this term comes from the baroco of the Logicians”.

Heinrich Wölfflin, one art chronicler from Switzerland, defined “baroque” in ~ the paper definition of being an art format in his publishing Renaissance und Barock (1888). In whichever manner this term has been defined over the centuries, the underlying essence definitely conveys a feeling of imperfection, confusion, and also maybe also disorder and also beauty.

This is evident in the Baroque style, whether it be paintings, sculptures, architecture, music, or literature. Below, we take a closer look in ~ what Baroque arts is.

What Is Baroque Art?

Baroque art was pioneered by noteworthy painters, architects, and also sculptors who lugged the visual strength of arts to the masses. There were many important numbers for the Baroque period. Because that example, artists like Caravaggio, that portrayed strong realism in his paintings, the Carracci brothers and their Bolognese School, i beg your pardon sought to relocate away from the arts of Mannerism (the art period after the Renaissance), and also Giacomo Della Porta, an Italian architect. We will certainly look at this artists and their contributions to the Baroque format in greater information below.

Baroque art Characteristics and Techniques

What set the Baroque duration apart indigenous the Renaissance and also subsequent Mannerism durations was its focus on an ext liveliness in its subject matter and also a distinguishable realism. Part sources likewise describe that as concentrating on the minute the event is taking place, or otherwise the “action” or drama. The subject matter was of religious and biblical narratives, together instructed by the Catholic Church. This would range between pictures of the Virgin Mary, the various Saints, and various story from the Bible.

Furthermore, Baroque paints were defined by the use of vibrant colors used with swirling and broad brushstrokes, which indicated movement and also emotional intensity. This painting style concentrated on depicting big expanses of light and openness, which was also seen in architecture, such together the churches v expansive locations within the center of the building, capped through cupolas (domes or square-like crowning structures over a roof) over for more light to get in the building.


Chiaroscuro is an Italian term that means “light-dark”. It focuses on defining contrasts in painting. This technique started in the Renaissance period, but it to be the method Caravaggio made use of it that it ended up being a famous characteristic the the Baroque period. With the strong emphasis top top dark and also light in ~ his compositions, the viewer almost becomes a component of the event portrayed in the painting.

An example contains Caravaggio’s The calling of St. Matthew (1599 – 1600), whereby we watch the right finger of Christ pointing in the direction of St. Matthew. The light and also shadow ~ above the wall from the incoming sunshine is straight echoed alongside Christ’s pointing finger.

The call of Saint Matthew (1599-1600) through Caravaggio; Caravaggio, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons


Tenebrism to be another method used by numerous Baroque painters, popularized and also believed to have actually started by Caravaggio. Although the is like chiaroscuro, the mainly focuses on the darker areas of a painting. The hatchet originates native the Italian word, tenebroso, which subsequently originates from the Latin, tenebra, meaning “darkness”. Various other words pertained to this terms space gloomy and mysterious. It sought to produce what is described as the “spotlight” effect, also called “dramatic illumination”.


Quadro Riportato

Quadro Riportato method “carried picture” in Italian, and it was supplied as a an approach by i beg your pardon the artist would paint what appeared as a frame approximately a painting, which would consist the a collection of paintings displayed as a fresco. This an approach was provided by one of the forerunners that the Baroque period, Annibale Carracci. It is evident in The Loves that the god (1597 – 1600) fresco top top the Farnese Palace’s ceiling.

Carracci’s Triumph of Bacchus and also Ariadne depicted in the center of The Loves of the god (1597-1600) fresco on the Farnese Palace’s ceiling; Annibale Carracci, windy domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Illusionism: Trompe l’Oeil and also Quadratura

The idea of “opening up” spaces within paintings was a big part that Baroque Art, together this also gave the sense of it being an optical illusion v the painted image appeared three-dimensional. Producing this three-dimensionality was known as trompe l’oeil, which means “deceive the eye” in French.

We deserve to see this on many of the frescos in churches and also paintings throughout the Baroque period. However, that did no start during this art period and deserve to instead be found dating earlier as early on as the 1800s. In fact, this an approach was used as beforehand as part Greek mural paintings and far into future with artists choose Salvador Dali, who used this technique in his Surrealist paintings.

Baroque artists employed one more perspective an approach called quadratura, i beg your pardon depicts images that appear like parts of actual architecture and also are purposely painted as continuations that the actual architecture. This an approach used theories based upon architectural perspective to use it accurately.

Famous Baroque Artists

Below, us look at just a handful of popular Baroque artists, consisting of prominent painters, architects and also their buildings, and sculptors and their sculptures. However, this does no exclude the many other masterpieces created during the Baroque duration and what they contributed to this duration of art and culture.

Baroque Paintings

Baroque paints were uncovered far and broad around Europe, and also we will certainly see paints from Italy, France, Spain, Flanders, Holland, England, and also Germany. Many artists had other an imaginative attributes the made castle not only painters, but sculptors, draftsmen, drawers, and also architects, amongst others.

We will check out that over there is a most crossover in between many of this painters, as each of them attracted inspiration from many sources throughout this time, including the layouts of prominent masters from the Renaissance duration like Michelangelo, Titian, and Raphael.

Annibale Carracci (1560 – 1609)

Annibale Carracci pioneered Baroque painting together with his brother, Agostino Carracci (1557 – 1602) and also their cousin, Ludovico Carracci (1555 – 1619). Castle are famed for starting the Bolognese college of arts (1590 – 1630), initially named Accademia dei Desiderosi, which they later changed to Accademia degli Incamminati (“Academy that the Progressives”).

This to be a turning point for art in Italy as it relocated away native the styles referred to as Realism and also Mannerism. Annibale Carracci sought come depict facets of Classicism and also Naturalism in his artworks. He drew from the High Renaissance’s stylistic theories of perspective and also proportion to enhance the aesthetic and naturalistic appeal. He is remembered as having a realistic style with big brushstrokes.

His artworks had actually a lively effect and were painted in life-size and also full-length in stimulate to produce a depth emotional link with the viewer. Additionally, he provided the technique of illusion, together his paintings virtually invited the viewer to come to be a part of the subject issue with its reality portrayals, frequently of religious figures and also landscapes. Examples include Pietà (1585) and Resurrection of Christ (1593).

Pietà (1585) through Carracci; Annibale Carracci, windy domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571 – 1610)

Caravaggio was a revolutionary artist that his time, and lived a more conflicted lifestyle, being connected in many crimes. He began his imaginative training in Mannerism in Rome, but he ultimately moved away from this layout and embraced a an ext naturalistic approach. He became a famous artist because of his innovative layout of painting and use of topic matter.

Caravaggio painted from the world approximately him and would frequently incorporate daily imagery through the spiritual figures. In a way, he connected a gap between the normalcy the life through the sacred. He made saints human, and also some sources refer to the concept of “spiritual populism”, in which he made sacred, religious art easily accessible to the ordinary male on the street.

The magnificent was not a much off appropriate of perfection anymore, which remained in line with what the Catholic Church wanted from art throughout the Counter-Reformation.

Many of the good examples the Caravaggio paintings encompass The Calling the Saint Matthew (1600), The Martyrdom the Saint Matthew (1600), Crucifixion the Saint Peter (1601), Death that the Virgin (1606), and the Flagellation that Christ (1607), amongst many others. Girlfriend may notice Caravaggio’s radical realism in his painting, Death of the Virgin (1606), which to be criticized for its portrayal of mother Mary. The dead virgin in this painting is mother Mary, however the artist shown her lifeless body together just an additional woman – one might think the it is just another woman who died.

Morte della Vergine (‘Death of a Virgin’, 1606) by Caravaggio; Caravaggio, publicly domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Caravaggio emphasizes the naturalness that this composition with various elements, such together the simplicity of her clothing, her hands and also feet showing up swollen, and also the simplicity that the scene and also men around her human body mourning her. The just indication of her being a holy number is the slim halo about her head. Caravaggio opens the totality scene come the viewer in the forefront, with the assorted mourners seemingly developing a backdrop in the background, for this reason forcing the viewer to be there with the dead body of mommy Mary.

Additionally, we view the use of stark comparison of dark and light in plenty of of Caravaggio’s paintings. His use of the chiaroscuro technique became a signature characteristic of his artworks. This likewise influenced plenty of other artists around Europe, and became a phenomenon referred to as Carravagism.

Artemisia Gentileschi (1593 – 1656)

Artemisia Gentileschi was a significant female artist throughout the Baroque period. She is remembered for her use of techniques like chiaroscuro, a close 2nd to Caravaggio. She also portrayed many women from biblical stories, scene of rape and also various power struggles, as well as emphasizing the function of a woman within a man’s world, as the art people was mainly conquered by guys at the time. Her scenes illustrated the realism us so regularly see from countless Baroque masters.

Some the her renowned works include Susanna and also the Elders (1610), Danae (1612), and Judith Slaying Holofernes (c. 1620), i beg your pardon is a dynamic artwork and one also done by Caravaggio. In Gentileschi’s variation of Judith Slaying Holofernes (c. 1620) we will watch the artist focusing more on the women slaying the male figure, who is busy struggling while the 2 pin him down and start beheading him.

Giuditta che decapita Oloferne (‘Judith Beheading Holofernes’, 1611-1612) by Gentileschi; Artemisia Gentileschi, publicly domain, via Wikimedia Commons

This composition takes place in the warm of the moment, so come say, together we also notice how the blood sprays the end of the neck, make the entirety scene all the much more emotionally intense and also severe. She additionally used darker areas of color with the chiaroscuro technique in addition to a deep color pension of colors.

Other elements of this composition allude to the power Gentileschi presented as an artist herself, gift able to portray her subject matter the means she wanted to. The violent screen of power and death in this painting additionally points come the underlying motivation for paint a scene favor this, as she to be the victim of sexual assault as a young woman.

Baroque Architecture

Baroque architecture is defined by ornate decorations, high ceilings decorated through frescos, and also lavish ornamentation to attract viewers’ attention and also emotional reaction of awe. It is crucial to note the duty of the Jesuits in Baroque architecture.

The Jesuits to be a religious order at the moment of the Counter-Reformation and sought to create a new form of style to accumulate the people and depict the majesty that the Catholic Church.

Giacomo Della Porta (1532 – 1602)

Baroque style is believed to have started through the Church that the Gesù (1584) and the pioneering style of that façade, which to be designed by Giacomo Della Porta, a sculptor and also architect in Italy. Giacomo Della Porta was an important architect because that the Baroque period. He learnt from other an excellent masters the art like Michelangelo, and was instructed by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola (1507 – 1573), a top Mannerist architect in Italy.

Façade of Chiesa del Gesù in Rome, Italy, designed by Della Porta; I, Alejo2083, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The Church the the Gesù was created for the society of Jesus, also called the Jesuits. Della Porta operated alongside Vignola ~ above this building, and although the appearance of the façade was no as sophisticated as the later Baroque buildings – we deserve to see it shows up minimally decorated in its entirety with only a concentration of architecture adornments near the entrance – it set the tone for the beginnings of Baroque architecture.

Baroque Sculpture

There were many great sculptors during the Baroque period, however there to be one artist that stood out among everyone else and laid the foundations of what sculpture was. Baroque sculpture to be made, as ordered through the Catholic Church, to develop awe and also inspire the usual people.

Baroque sculpture was characterized by miscellaneous features, specific its interactivity, together viewers were able to walk roughly the totality sculpture and also view that completeness, which do its message more impactful. The was also used in church to accentuate architectural structures. Furthermore, sculptors were so professional in their arts they developed works with substantial attention come detail, from sex to the diaphanous nature of the fabric on the sculpted figure.

Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (1598 – 1680)

This brings united state to Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini, one architect and also sculptor in Italy. The was mostly a sculptor and also has been contrasted by some scholars to own the same importance that Shakespeare had actually for the people of theater and literature.

Bernini was thought about a prodigy throughout his early on years, with countless comparing him come Michelangelo.

Bernini’s sculptures illustrated the moment of action taking place, which added to the strongness of the occupational upon the town hall it. His subject matter had biblical and also mythological scenes and also figures, and we deserve to see examples of this in his sculptures like Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius (1619), The Rape that Proserpina (1621 – 1622), Apollo and also Daphne (1622 – 1625), and also David (1623 – 1624).

Apollo and Daphne (1622-1625) by Bernini; Gian Lorenzo Bernini, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

One the Bernini’s best sculptures to day is the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (1647 – 1652). Do of pure marble, it is housed in the Cornaro Chapel in Rome. The sculpture depicts Saint Teresa the Avila lied half-conscious on a cloud with an angel. The point of view is contempt elevated, alongside her human body on her right, and just around to pierce her heart v a spear. The marble is sculpted in such a method that renders the Saint show up as light as a feather floating top top the cloud, i m sorry highlights the story Bernini is portraying here.

Here, we watch Saint Teresa suffering a deep minute of ecstasy. It shows up spiritual in nature, yet Bernini likewise focused ~ above the physical and sensual effects this experience provided the Saint. We view this in the way her body lies and her facial expression. Behind the main figures, we also notification what appears like beam of irradiate shining down on the minute of pure bliss.

When us look at the entirety composition, we will also notification the main figures room within a columned framework with 2 theater box on either side of the main subject the the Saint and also Angel. The theatre boxes are directly opposite the other and also contain sculptures the the Cornaro family.

Trasfigurazione di santa Teresa (‘Ecstasy the St. Teresa’, 1652) by Bernini; Gian Lorenzo Bernini, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Other well known Baroque Painters

Below are various other famous Baroque artists worth noting, specifically artists that come from different European nations other 보다 Italy.

Flemish Baroque Artists

Peter Paul Rubens (1577 – 1640) was an prominent Flemish artist that produced artworks with religious themes, including mythological scenes. His work-related varied from landscapes, portraits, altarpieces, and also paintings. This Baroque duration artist was known as giving northern art, particularly painting, a new perspective. The was affected by artists favor Titian and incorporated a diversity the male and also female figures in the nude in his paintings.

Furthermore, his paintings depicted strong emotional vibrancy and also are often explained as exuberant in style.

Some of his famed artworks encompass The key of the Cross (1611), Massacre that the Innocents (1612), Prometheus Bound (1618), The Adoration of the Magi (1624), Venus and also Adonis (1635), and also The 3 Graces (1639), and also the Return the the Peasants (1640), i m sorry depicts Ruben’s love of landscapes.

The 3 Graces (c. 1635) by Rubens; Peter Paul Rubens, windy domain, via Wikimedia Commons

French Baroque Artists

Georges de La tour (1593 – 1652) developed artworks using solid chiaroscuro techniques comparable to Caravaggio. However, what made La Tour’s paintings different was his simplified approach and rendering of figures. The is well-known for depicting scenes that show up by candlelight.

Where Caravaggio’s paints depict emotionally intensity, La Tour’s paintings depict an emotional stillness. His subject issue was of religious figures and narratives. Examples of his artworks incorporate The Penitent Magdalene (c. 1640), Joseph the Carpenter (1642), Nativity (1644), and also The child Christ (1645).

The Penitent Magdalene (c. 1640) through de la Tour; Georges de La Tour, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Spanish Baroque Artists

Diego Rodríquez de Silva y Velázquez (1599 – 1660) was a Spanish Baroque period artist who also painted because that King Philip IV’s court, which led him to paint many portraits that court officials as well as of the Spanish royal family. He was well-known as one of the pioneering portraiture artist of his time. Plenty of sources likewise refer come him as the “the painter’s painter” because of his substantial attention to detail in his paintings. He frequently painted day-to-day scenes that people and nature.

Some that his well known artworks include The Supper at Emmaus (1618 – 1623), The Surrender the Breda (1635), Portrait that Juan de Pareja (1650), Portrait of innocent X (1650), and Las Meninas (1656), the latter of which is one of the most famous artworks by the artist because of the strategic rendering of compositional aspects like space, color, perspective, and line.

It depicts Infanta Margarita, that was King Philip IV’s daughter. She is surrounded by mrs attendants through her in the facility richly clad as royalty. We can also an alert the artist showing himself in the lift while that is in the process of painting the scene.

Las Meninas (‘The Maids the Honour’, 1656-1657) by Velázquez; Diego Velázquez, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Dutch Baroque Artists

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606 – 1669) was one of the most influential and also well-known netherlands painters, and to today he is mental as an important artist. This dutch Baroque period artist produced many great artworks throughout his career, consisting of the masterpiece, The Night Watch (1642).

Van Rijn developed different scene of day-to-day life, landscapes, also as spiritual and mythological subject matter. Rembrandt’s paints are renowned to have captured the affluence throughout the Dutch gold Age, the duration during which that painted.

His paints showed varied emotional states consisting of a keen eye for information while painting his scenes. He additionally utilized approaches of light and dark contrasts (chiaroscuro) and innovative means of dealing with his paint and also brushstrokes, frequently using different textures.

Some the his renowned paintings include The Anatomy class of Dr. Nicholas Tulp (1632), Man in asian Costume (1632), The Night Watch (1642), Slaughtered Ox (1655), Jacob Blessing the boy of Joseph (1656), and Self-Portrait through Two Circles (1660).

The Night Watch (1642) by Rembrandt; Rembrandt, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

From Dark come Light: Baroque and also Rococo

The Baroque period, which started in Rome, at some point evolved right into what was called the Rococo period, which started around 1702 until 1780 in France. The Rococo duration was a time during which art shown a feeling of lightness as opposed to the darker portrayals we watch from the Baroque period. What both art movements shared to be the dramatic flair in their artworks and use the ornate decorations, checked out in paintings, sculpture, and architecture.

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Baroque proceeds to live on later on with plenty of Baroque period artists influencing other artist from the Rococo period, and also subsequent art activities like Romanticism, Impressionism, and also Post-Impressionism. Contemporary artists and also architects like I.M. Pei and also Frank Gehry have likewise used incentive from Bernini’s structures.